This is as per design of remote desktop. According to Microsoft it's not possible to use hardware acceleration with remote desktop. You need other software for that, like HP Remote Graphics software (free when using recent HP workstation).
This might have changed recently, nVidia claims they have a workaround implemented in their latest (probably not yet SolidWorks certified) drivers. I haven't tested it and don't know the exact version driver you would need.
Turns out the software rendering mode does not support all the texture types and parameters that my machines hardware accelerated graphics driver does.
I changed the textures to follow Microsoft's recommendations on MSDN for texture types, sizes, and formats and now it works in software and hardware accelerated mode.