Are you using EPDM or PDM? With the information you provided, it sounds like you want to take files from the vault to a remote computer not on the network, and then bring them back to the office and get them back into the original location on the network. Without setting up a VPN or in EPDM using the web server, you wont be able to "sync" the files without using third party software.
Do a pack and go with the files that your taking home, and then when you bring them back you will have to make sure you manually drop each file back into its original location.
Set up sync folders with a program such as Microsoft Sync Toy. This program allows you to keep two folders that you specify in sync with each other. You can set the main folder as your PDM location, and the second folder as you remote pdm location, maybe on a USB portable drive. When you bring the files back to the office and run synctoy for those folders, ONLY the files that have changed will be replaced....Ive done this, it works good. Hope this helps.
We're actually using Adept.
I'm not actually worried about the actual part files and assemblies i'm working on....it's the start parts, drawing templates, drawing tables, blocks, etc. that we use. So if i'm on my laptop and i don't VPN in and i go and start a new part, it goes out looking for the network drive where it's pointed to.
Sounds like my solution is a program like you mentioned where i point everything to a locally sync'd folder 100% of the time. That way it's always available.