I had a similar problem where Solidworks would start but only show the header and footer of the program the whole center section showed whatever was on my desktop below. No Side bar, toolbars, or feature manager. I could open files but nothing would show up. They would show up in the little preview when you browse open files though.
It would work when logged in to other profiles. I uninstalled and reinstalled and had no improvement. This all just started this week. I downloaded the Office 2010 service pack and then Windows update had some other things it wanted to update after that.
What had seemed to work is to do a copy settings wizard restore from a previously saved file and now it appears to work.
Give the copy settings wizard a try and see if it fixes your problem.