Not at present. the ability to link a note in a block to a BOM item would make for a good enhancement request.
I would say you would have an easier time doing that in Draft sight (SW 2D program)
getting that to work there. Inside of a SW drawing the only method that may work would be
to create an API routine that might work, but it would have to over write the existing balloon configuration
already established and setup to work with the current BOM's.
What does this balloon you are trying to incorporate have that the ones that are already there don't?
What I have are a bunch of details that were created in autocad years ago that we are still utilizing today. so instead of redrawing them i just imported them into solidworks and created blocks out of them. Once those blocks were in solidworks i then added balloons and standard notes. Sorry i may have not explained myself well enough.
I will still go back to my original answer.
You are still incorporating 2D features. Honestly if you trully want the balloon
to BOM functionality you are going to have to recreate them.