OBJECTIVE: assess the validity of Flow Simulation results for Reynolds numbers COMMON to COMMON transportation! The range Re=1e6 to 1.5e7, PRECISELY where the tutorials and validation examples do not cover!
The Cd on a continuous CYLINDER, normal to flow, at Re=1e7, in water has been shown as ~0.6 (ref.: R.L.Panton) and in air, with a surface roughness of ~5.6 micrometers, Cd~0.7! (ref. Roshko)
Given that a Cylinder has a Diameter=D and a (cambered) Airfoil a Chord=C and a thickness=t=0.28C where:
- t=Thickness normal to flow
- ALL runs have roughness set at 5 micrometers (adds to results ~8%!)
- ALL runs have Gravity applied (reduces cylinder results by ~6%!)
- and Re=1e7 (constant)
- CD's set at front=15C upper=15C lower=15C rear=25C (as per CYLINDER DRAG tutorial
- Initial Mesh= 7
- Surfaces have Local Initial Mesh (S/F 4,4,4, 0.31756, 1.25)
- three additional LIM's of generally concentric, eliptical shape, refined accordingly
- ALL runs use refinement level 2
- ALL runs use 4 refinements (1,1.25,1.5,1.75 travels)
- ALL runs are required to use all 4 refinements
- FINISH is at convergence 'auto' relaxation: +0.2 travels
QUESTION 1: Is there ANY man/woman/child that would BELIEVE the DRAG on the CYLINDER, with it's greater circumference (=surface area=skin friction) and MORE THAN 3 times the thickness, could be LESS than the DRAG on the AIRFOIL with it's far smaller 'frontal area' and smaller circumference (=surface area)???
Flow Simulation PREDICTS the AIRFOIL of less than one third thickness has MORE drag and a WORSE Cd;
- CYLINDER: Cd=0.0575, DRAG=30.0697kgf
- AIRFOIL (C128): Cd=0.058245 DRAG=30.4388kgf
Is this merely due to the fact that: THOUGH tested at angle of attack=alpha=0deg, the heavily cambered airfoil, generates more lift?
QUESTION 2: Flow Simulations prediction are out by a HUGE factor of about 1200% (at this Reynolds number!)
Is this as good as it (SW 2012 Flow Simulation) gets???
QUESTION 3: If 'YES' to Q2, shouldn't ALL users be made aware of this in the interest of costs and consequences/safety/liability associated with being UNAWARE of the HUGE errors?