SolidWorks Simulation has bolt connectors, in which you specify Bolt Pre-tension. Behind the curtains, SolidWorks Simulation applies a thermal load to the bolt, in order to make it shrink and exert an axial force on the fastened parts.
I was wondering if there is a formula somewhere that relates thermal load you need to apply and axial force you want to get. I need to simulate a real bolt and I'd like to get my bolt pre-tension right the first time, without trial and error.
I found something here, but it's not convincing: