Hi Sawyer Villa,
I have taken a look at your case, and, before saying anything else, I have a question: is your goal to use that thickness as variable and then optimize your case (let's say, obtain the minimum temperature by varying the thickness, for example) or is it just an exploration case in which you want to know the temperature value associated to a list of thickness vales?
Solidworks own design study can do an exploration case and then plot the result if you indicate a range for the thickness and a step to be taken by the study. If your goal is to optimize on a continuous variable, then the study won't be able to plot your results.
I have run a very quick set up with your example both with the optimization setup and with the exploratory setup. I used transient state 120s with 10s increment (it has not reached the final state, but it is still valid for our example). Here are some pictures.
Design Study Monitoring only the results:
Plots of the results (I have not been able to plot the thickness against the temperature, it only allows you to use one axis, the other is mandatory for the "number of sets" run):
Design Study with the optimization:
When using optimization, Design Study does not allow to plot:
Without tooting my own horn too much, I actually work with with an add-in for SolidWorks that can do what you ask for. In case you need more in-depth results, here is a quick rundown of our add-in running an optimization (minimizing the temperature by varying the thickness)..
Feel free to contact me if you want to know more.