This always happens. I manage to figure out the issue as soon as I ask. It appears I had conflicting Dispatch actions. They did basically the same thing at different parts of the workflow, and for some reason caused a conflict. I deleted one and rearranged some things and all is well. Ultimately it is a better solution than what I had.
1. Most likely, that it is necessary to set up Excel (Security Settings).
2. Windows (or another) Firewall and exceptions of the Antivirus.
3. Still it is possible to try to set up start of Excel, PDM, SolidWorks Files (all *.exe in all folders) with the rights of the administrator (will not prevent).
4. Will not prevent to add the current user with the rights of full access for tab Security for Vault.
Also the file can be locked with system or a script of Dispatch (it is possible to check in Task Manager) or other utility (for example Unlocker).
Also I hope that the current user has the rights of the administrator in system and there are no problems with Excel? (Whether by the way will not prevent to check everything it is set).
Also will not prevent to check / repeat installation of all or parts of components from the Preregs folder of a packet of installation SolidWorks PDM/.
There are still questions of existence of updates Windows, but I hope that before will not reach.
It seems that nothing from this was required. Happens.