Show Files, File Preview and Card Preview are all toggled on.
Other than that, I'm not sure what can be done to re-enable previews.
I not once solved a similar problem and I think that there is no universal answer to all cases (perhaps I am mistaken).
Possible decisions from personal practice:
1. Of course, the first that can advise - to reinstall all this or to correct the PDM installation. Perhaps it will solve a problem, but I can't give a guarantee. A lot of things depend on existence of the previous installations.
Therefore I at first would advise to try system roolback (if there are recovery points).
2. If recently any updates have been executed - it is possible to try to reinstall EDrawings instead of roolback. At the same time it is often necessary to remove not only all traces of EDrawing in system, but also in registry - it is the for this purpose best of all to use RegOrganizer and not to do automatic cleaning. But it is option - when all the rest gives nothing.
3. If there is antivirus / firewall to check that FileViewer, EDrawing and other *.exe the PDM files - aren't blocked and ready for start with the rights of Administrator.
4. Sometimes it is possible to solve a problem by reset settings of the Menu of User, Group or All Users in Administration PDM (in a case when this problem only in one Vault).
5. There is still an option which is difficult for explaining - but sometimes helps - with Vault in the Display menu - to change various settings - and then to return them back. Possibly at the same time I am restored some values in Regisry. But it helps seldom.
6. Still it is possible to try Restore File Assotiations in SolidWorks (System Options \File Explorer). Probability that it will help - minimum.
7. But very first - to check correctness of settings of the User and/or Group - Viewing of files. Sometimes they are dumped.
And in general there are some more questions.
From screenshot only one vault is visible - there is no opportunity to check in another? It is PDM Standart?
If on other computer - to enter under the same user - what will be result? Or on this computer under other user?
Installation / updating were carried out from under one user and at the same time there were no problems?
The problem has appeared itself or after some actions?
I wish the decision more simply.
Installation of the new version of PDM - better last can be also quite good decision. But it will have to do on all computers and it is desirable to have experience.
Different unforeseen problems are anyway possible. Therefore it is necessary to do Restore point of system in advance.
Thanks Martin. All 3 File types for SolidWorks were listed: sldprt, sldasm, slddrw.
Again unknown how they got in the excluded file list.