I don't have swlauncher.exe in C:\Program Files\SOLIDWORKS Corp\SOLIDWORKS either. I don't understand your use of "Launcher" because I don't consider that it has a launcher. It has a shortcut. It has file extension associations.
There is: swShellFileLauncher.exe , sldworks_fs.exe , SLDWORKS.exe , sldProcMon.exe
Are any of those what you seek?
I'm surprised that reinstall did not repair it. Have you tried deleting SWx entities from the registry so they can be repopulated upon load? I'm not sure that would have any benefit to you, as it's apparently not loading correctly to begin with, which is the time at which the deleted entities would be repopulated automatically. I cannot find (at this time) the thread on board about registry wipe and/or clean install to point you to.
Fix the SW files associations and make sure they are set to open with SW. These link should help: