Ok, I think this is my solution.
Dim vault As EdmVault5
Dim bool As Boolean
Dim file As IEdmFile10
Dim folder As IEdmFolder5
Dim folder_pos As IEdmPos5
Set vault = CreateObject("ConisioLib.EdmVault.1")
vault.LoginAuto "KELLER-PDM", 0
Set file = vault.GetObject(EdmObject_File, 589307)
Set folder_pos = file.GetFirstFolderPosition
Set folder = file.GetNextFolder(folder_pos)
Anyway other solutions would be interesting !
it seems that there is no other way to get the folder.
After you got the folder you will need to get the local path like this: http://help.solidworks.com/2016/english/api/epdmapi/EPDM.Interop.epdm~EPDM.Interop.epdm.IEdmFile5~GetLocalPath.html
Kind regards, Carsten