Say I am given 3D matrices corresponding to different components in a Solidworks model (e.g. via .txt/excel/labview), is there a way to feed that data in real time to corresponding components in Solidworks?

I understand this is possible with the Solidworks motion add-in however would I be able to achieve something similar with just my Solidworks Professional subscription?

You can apply 4x4 transformation matrix (Transformation matrix - Wikipedia) to components via API: 2017 SOLIDWORKS API Help - Transform2 Property (IComponent2)

If you give me some sample matrix I might be able to create an example for you.