It seems like you have a few things going on at once here. The easiest one to check and fix is probably the one you call "Evidence-3" and "Evidence-4". This one would be caused if either your "setup.exe" file or "sldim.exe" files were set to run in Windows compatibility mode. The way to fix this is to go to each of these relative folders...
...right click on each of these .EXE files then go to 'Properties'. Once in the Properties dialog go to the 'Compatibility' tab and make sure the "Run this program in compatibility mode for:" option is disabled like this:
Once you have disabled this setting for both .EXE files the warning about the program not being supported on Windows XP should go away.
Next, "Evidence 2" would seem to show that you have a 4K monitor items in the OS set to be enlarged. To fix that you would run a search in your Windows Start menu for "Make text and other items larger or smaller". This search should reveal a display setting in your OS like shown below. You likely do not have your OS set to "Smaller - 100% (default)" which the SOLIDWORKS Installation Manager tends to work best with. Set this setting back to 100% then logout/login to your user account. Most of your OS will likely look different but you should now be able to run the SOLIDWORKS Installation Manager without everything being enlarged beyond the borders of the window.
Sorry for the long wait. I tried doing all these steps and I still get that window. Is it possible the 2017-2018 Solidworks is just not compatible with the HP Spectre?
what is your OS is it windows 10? Home? professional?
I don't doubt that your machine is off on a specification or two but I bet you could still get it to install. Try going into this folder...
... And running "SolidWorks.msi". This should be a different interface that could allow you to install.