I haven't had any luck with Derived Parts in the past so I don't use them. I found that when making changes to the master part the derived parts don't update unless you open them and edit them, is what I remember, it's been a long time since I tried it. You will have much better update performance using a Master Part or a Skeleton Sketch Part in an assembly and building everything from those parts...
I didn't face this sort of issue, bcz I never used this as a solution. Anyways, try making sketch fully defined. Then, once you insert your master part into derived part check the symbol of "convert entities". This will make sure all your relations with different entities are linked to the original one.
And If possible try uploading these 2 files here. I will figure out something for you.