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To answer your numbered questions:
- The best way to find a bolt axial force is with a bolted connector in static analysis. You would only move over to a nonlinear analysis if your study was on a nonlinear material, there was a large deformation, or the loading was being applied not simultaneously.
- Yes, you absolutely would need preload applied as the formulation of a bolt connector in Simulation is only valid as the bolt is under preload. If the bolt is applied with no preload in a situation where it would be allowed to have the objects lift off one another then the results would not be valid. Further, the axial force of a bolt connector would include the axial force caused by the preload. You may wish to run a study of your model that has only preloaded bolts applied with no loads then a study with the same bolts and loads applied so you can observe the difference in axial force on the bolts.
- Yes, using foundation bolts in a static study then looking at the connector forces would be a fine way to observe the axial forces in the bolts.