Yes. In the example you've given you would need to edit your cabinet assemblies inside the top level assembly, establishing relations between the cabinets and the size of the kitchen. That example may not be simple, and may throw up some errors that would need fixing, but it could be done.
The key word you are looking for is top down, or in-context modeling.
There are a lot of ways to do this, but most reliable, fastest to rebuild and least likely to cause you to throw yourself in a river in disgust at the mess you've made, is with a layout sketch (not a layout feature! layout features suuuuuck).
- In your case, open a blank assembly and do your floor plan in a 2D sketch just like a normal person.
- Then insert components (walls, bookshelves, chairs) as-required tied to the built-in planes.
- Make the plan view dimensions of the components' sketches driven by the floor plan sketch and viola! You now have a 3d model parametric to your floor plan, which is still available to you to insert into a drawing.
- You can then open each component part and add detail as-required.
- Be very careful renaming components, or you will break the relations between the components and the assembly. I can't stress this enough--get the assembly named correctly before you start.