Depending on your end goal, yes and no ...
If you need to flip between configurations in a similar fashion to the way you do now in SW, then no. I don't believe you can do that.
However if you simply want to have multiple configurations shown you can create a drawing file and insert any/all views you like and set them to any/all configurations. Then simply export that out as a .STP file or any other type you would like. We do a lot of this to show different machining operations to our vendor who uses ACAD and it works just fine. Typically we will throw some basic annotations on each drawing set (or view set) to represent the difference or a basic description so that our vendor knows the order of operations.
No you can't export a STEP with all configurations in it but you can create an assembly and add all configurations into that (multiple components showing different configurations) and export as STEP.