I just upgraded to 2016 and now find these extra tick marks extending out from my end points while in sketch mode. I'm sure there should be a way to turn them off, but what are they called? Where can I find the toggle to get rid of them?
I am in 2015 but try turning off arc center points in sketches. Uncheck this box.
It looks like you're talking about virtual sharps. A virtual sharp is the virtual point where two sketch entities would intersect if extended. You can click on them to select, and hit delete to remove them, or you can modify their appearance, including "none", under the solidworks options: Document Properties > Drafting Standard > Virtual Sharps
Here's a pic of the settings menu location, and a pic showing your screenshot with some of the virtual sharp extension lines extended back towards their origination:
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